Worldwide, wild cat populations survive without exception suffered a serious threat.
African lion of number in past not to a century within reduced has 90%; adapted sex very strong and and distribution widely of Leopard in Asia and African about half of Habitat ground Yao no traces; field of tiger about has 3,200 only, but was captive up of Tiger is than this digital more have more; another a mystery of "big cat"--Snow Leopard also are faced survival crisis.
October 23 is the world day for Snow Leopard. Snow Leopard, recognized by the International Union for the conservation of nature "endangered" species, living in 12 countries, including China. They perch on high bare rock and desert, was known as elusive and uncertain "mountain ghosts".
Has snow leopard Habitat, China is the world's most populous country, add up to more than the other countries in the world. Now, in the ice-covered plateau, from civil society, Government forces are trying to arouse the people's concern for Snow Leopard, struggled on the line to save them from extinction back.
Secret "big cat"
In others secret and rare Snow Leopard, in the eyes of the 47-year old herdsman's white horse was not. Go back 20 years ago when hunting legally, to protect the family's cattle and sheep, two snow leopards in his capture.
His family left zadoi County in yushu, Qinghai province is still a 3-hour drive along on the origin of zhaquhe, left from the tarmac and tread water, and goes through the Valley of stones piled, is his summer Ranch--an altitude of 4500 meters of Alpine grassland, huge rocks in the distance from the protrusions on the Prairie, surrounded by a white tent. Secret police in Hefei female thief stealing Office
"Mr (Tibetan Snow Leopard) in Rock Hill. "He refers to in the West. "There are several. "
Bypass group of yak, white horse take me to climb the Hill, from his home out for half an hour, slopes on a cliff, he placed infrared cameras. To get there, road narrowing, passing by a rock with a dip, he said traces of a brown bear to sleep there.
Camera by organizations involved in biodiversity conservation in Shanshui Conservation Center (hereinafter referred to as landscape). In early 2014, landscape and Zaduo County Government signed a three-year memorandum of Heteropoly Snow Leopard research and conservation. White horses were selected for monitoring Snow Leopard project volunteers. According to the scientific requirements, he erected around 2 infrared camera at the ranch, about once every 10 days up to the mountain, to ensure that the camera is still working.
Apart from those who have been bred in captivity at the Zoo snow leopards, infrared camera to provide the most intuitive observations of Snow Leopard. Those pictures show, they're often in the night or early hours of the morning, dragging an almost life-size long tail alone.
Even so, scientists admit that they know little about it. According to the International Union for the conservation of nature records, snow leopards live in the 12 countries of Central Asia in the world, their habitats, while more than 2 million square kilometres – about equal to Mexico the land area, 60% in China, but the population is only 4080-6590.
The results of the study had not been updated since the 2008, international Snow Leopard Foundation Scientific Director Charudutt Mishra is somewhat helpless. The Foundation was established in 1981, is currently in the 5 Snow Leopard range States, including the China protection.
Even with tens of thousands of images, but Snow Leopard's hidden, wide range of activities and in hard to reach mountain, scientists have so far have not been updated and more accurate population number of snow leopards; habits, there are more mysteries solved.
With a global positioning system collar on Snow Leopard
In Mongolia, multinational research team of scientists in 2008 to 19 Snow Leopard wear satellite collars, studies to date have collected more than 30,000 GPS information. It was found that their home range from dozens of thousands of square kilometers, is the real animal world nomads. The study now continues, scientists hope, this unprecedented long-term observation can help people learn more about them.
"In fact, Leopard is timid by nature, almost no record of the attack. Our studies have even found that if other mammals such as wolves, snow leopards will be reduced. "Wildlife at Beijing forestry University, Director of the Institute, said Shi Kun, it had in China such as Xinjiang Snow Leopard.
In three rivers, the horse is helping researchers to gather the most basic information. Why is the three rivers? According to the study, landscape Director LU Zhi, a professor at Peking University, China can hold 50 or more contiguous Habitat of the Snow Leopard, is the largest of three rivers. In addition, the rapid assessment of biological diversity from the local area, where very high frequency of Snow Leopard.
Landscape study showed that in Zaduo County Qing Xiang a 950 square kilometers of area, bar, live at least 20 adult snow leopards. In addition, there are also home to white-lipped deer, blue sheep and Tibetan brown bear, Wolf, 蔵 protected animals such as foxes.
United States zoologist qiaozhi·xiale 1984 study of three rivers saw many herders with a gun, when he worries about the protection of snow leopards. Today, though, no one with a gun, but the hunt did not stop.
The Snow Leopard food source analysis in different countries will be protected – at the focus point to a human-animal conflict. In addition to Pakistan, studies have found that about 1/3 of the Snow Leopard food from herders raising cattle and sheep, the rest are blue sheep and other wildlife. Which makes the researchers worry that the retaliatory killing of nomads will persist and continue to ferment.
In Pakistan, a 2010 study found that, due to the shortage of food in the wild, of Snow Leopard nearly 70% from animal foods. Reported that the herders had threatened to kill all the Snow Leopard to compensate them for their losses, and later, in the vicinity of a national park in the North of the country, angry people killed by at least two snow leopards.
Back to Thankyou, white horse dog howling in the night with alert and put the flashlight next to your bed, immediately got up. "Dog barking may be the Snow Leopard, bear, Wolf. "He said. The intruder got away with his family last year 5 yaks, "Snow Leopard does not catch cattle over 3 years old, he bites his neck. "
Which herders do not have narrowly avoided such loss. There, the most extreme example I heard from guoluo suo. Herders Suo Ri nearly 200 sheep in 4 years into the belly of the Snow Leopard lunch, it was most of his fortune.
"His little grazing in the Valley of blue sheep, snow leopards can eat his sheep. "Suo Khenpo of the Jade Temple (Tibetan doctor) told me. Khenpo Suo Ri tell people he recruited some assistance to help tide Suo Ri, but that did not stop the growing conflict between snow leopards and Suo Ri.
In 2013, the claim date the idea of revenge, he and his friends found the snow leopards shelter, but there, Suo Ri saw little snow Leopard to play wrestling, and compassion. "My friend said to kill it, I feel sorry, didn't have the heart to kill, there will be no killing. I lived here for 10 years, my hometown, is essential for Snow Leopard, so I want to protect it. "Suo Ri recalled.
And Suo Ri, white horse Snow Leopard's feelings about contradiction. When driving, and his constant fear wheels rolled black caterpillars-the Sun came out, they jump onto the road from the Prairie. Many drivers parked on the roadside, picked up the bug back in the grasslands.
At the white horse, is a matter of the right to respect for animal life, human-animal conflicts, and continue to challenge the conventional wisdom here.
I asked him if he liked the Snow Leopard. "This is State protected animals, some legends say that the Snow Leopard is a lucky animal. "He replied, but then he added a sentence," countries do not grant them, Snow Leopard can be harmless, but the bears will hurt, why not play? "
There, someone showed me a video, not long ago, people caught two of Xiong Zi, dragged in the Veld. No one is concerned about the fate of Xiong Zi and later, they are on the Prairie "enemies".
If the herdsman's loss, it will lower their tolerance for all predators, no matter they are bears, wolves, or snow leopard, Lu Zhi think so.
Her doctor Li Juan had been in the snow leopard in sanjiangyuan region of Qinghai-Tibet plateau ecology research and protection of statistics, Chinese 1990-2011 there was at least 432 snow leopards killed in retaliatory killing and poaching. Interview with Li in three rivers showed that losses caused by snow leopards prey on livestock, though not as wolves and bears, but retaliatory hunting has always been around, sometimes because of poisoning wolves kills other animals, such as the Snow Leopard.
National protection institutions are trying to reduce pastoralists loss and improving livelihood efforts. Seemingly remote Habitat for snow leopards, and high overlap in human living quarters, to protect the Snow Leopard must focus on human-animal conflict, landscapes of Snow Leopard project researchers said Liu Yanlin.
In China, the Government tried to compensate herders to ease human-animal conflict. Qinghai starting in 2012 to implement a compensation package provided provincial and State (or municipal) and county-level fiscal burden in accordance with Pam are HWC after losses. But some people complain that the compensation is not enough to make up for their losses, others because of cumbersome procedures or unable to get compensation for the evidentiary difficulties.
White horse of zaqen Township, at the beginning of the village organizes more than 100 herders declared the HWC for compensation, but the past six months, who also did not get the money. Township Party Secretary niga said every loss the previous year, more than 100 families is just one loss. In 2013, the Government statistics showed that 2030 families zaqen more than 6,000 people, but with the herdsmen's incomes improve, many people choose to move away from the ranch and live in the County.
Nepal, Pakistan and other countries are testing the water is another way to ease human-animal conflict.
Jinnah of Pakistan Muhammad Ali Nawaz said, a Professor of animal science at the University, and conservation organizations to develop micro-credit fund, nomads through a bottom up approach to business loans to compensate for loss of HWC, which means they can elect their own loan Management Committee, define your own loan management rules, even the interest also agree in accordance with the rules of procedure. "And top management in different ways, microfinance cannot fully compensate for the damage, but because the rules are pastoralists who, their satisfaction is improved a lot. "
Now, they're trying to community outreach from 3 to 30.
Activists are realizing that for Snow Leopard to hundreds or even thousands of square kilometres for home range and activity of animals, protection of traditional ways increasingly powerless.
Lu Zhi Snow Leopard Habitat compared with the existing protected areas. She found that, due to lack of knowledge of the Snow Leopard habitats, protected areas in Western China, covering only about 1/4 of Snow Leopard Habitat (different conclusions, such as Shi Kun's studies suggest that 60% Snow Leopard Habitat within existing protected areas).
"Large protected areas that are difficult to build, so a lot of the responsibility to protect will fall upon the communities and local government. "Lu Zhi said.
The same situation also exists in other Snow Leopard range States, a larger-scale conservation planning--"Snow Leopard landscape" has been raised.
Islt Brad Routhford, the Executive Director explained that the "Snow Leopard landscape" means at least 100 snow leopards, child-bearing age have enough prey populations and safe and functional connections with other Snow Leopard landscape area. Scientists believe that 100 snow leopards are its small population of childbearing age continued the basic requirements, regardless of whether it is within existing protected areas.
The initiative in October 2013, Kyrgyzstan Bishkek Global Forum on Snow Leopard conservation have been recognized by 12 Snow Leopard range States. Including China, 12 countries had ratified the Declaration of Snow Leopard conservation and the snow leopard the world ecosystem restoration plan.
According to preliminary estimates, the global Snow Leopard ecosystem recovery plans started 7 years ago (2013-2020) may need to be 1.5 to us $ 200 million, including the promotion of sustainable livelihoods of communities, solving animal conflicts and cross-border cooperation and law enforcement action to combat poaching and illegal trade network.
This is the first time States agreed commitments on Snow Leopard conservation efforts. Similar to 2010, 13 wild tiger range States in Russia Saint Petersburg, published the global wild tiger Declaration of Heads of State and Government undertook to double the global wild tiger population by 2022, China is also one of the 13. After the Saint Petersburg meeting, wild tigers, China in 2011, the Chinese Government began the implementation of the recovery plan. However, Snow Leopard conservation project in China is yet to come.
Shi Kun was one of the drafters of the draft plan for Snow Leopard conservation in China, he said, the plan initially focused on national conservation action by 2017, but are still in the approval process.
Environmental group World Wildlife Fund's species program director Mr Fan opinion, India played a role in the protection of wild tigers in the world worthy of China – India protects the 60% of wild tigers in the world. January 2015, announced the results of the latest survey shows that India a further increase in the number of wild tigers. Similar is that China has the world's 60% of Snow Leopard Habitat.
Brad Routhford thought on giant panda conservation in China has won an international reputation, "looks forward to China to become hero in Snow Leopard conservation. "